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SUICIDE: The Risk And Protective Factors



Suicide is not a word uncommon in this our present society. There is hardly a month when someone will not commit one. Some killed themselves by hanging, poison and even jumping into lagoon. It ranges from students to working class, even directors. The question is, what went wrong? Why did they decide to leave family and friends behind? What could be responsible? 

Some victims was said to have committed suicide because of failure in a particular course, some because of poverty, some were not known. Lets take a quick look at what suicide is, risk factors and protective factors.

Suicide is when someone decide to take his/her own life without confiding in anyone whether wife, husband, children or family.

Suicide doesn’t just happen in a day, the person must have been thinking about it for a very long time. Which psychiatrists referred to as suicidal thought or ideation.

Acccording to findings, as at 2005, it was ranked the 11th major cause of death in United States and Canada. Worldwide, it is the second most frequent cause of death among women below 45years of age and fourth most frequent cause of death in men under 45years of age.

In suicide, there are some psychological conditions responsible, most specifically, mood disorders. When people with psychological disorders think about killing themselves, it is called suicidal ideation. But, suicidal ideation does not necessarily mean there is presence of psychological disorders.

Suicidal thoughts may range from believing that others would be better off if the person were dead to vague ideas of dying by suicide to specifi c plans to commit suicide.

There are, however, certain behaviors that can suggest serious suicidal intent and can serve as warning signs.
According to Packman et al., 2004, some of the behaviours are;
¶ Giving away possessions,
¶ Saying goodbye to friends or family,
¶ Talking about death or suicide generally or about specific plans to commit suicide,
¶ Making threats of suicide, and
¶ Rehearsing a plan for suicide.

Unfortunately, not everyone who plans or is about to commit suicide displays warning signs.

The risk of suicide is higher for people with psychological disorders, whether officially diagnosed or not. The three most common disorders are;
1. Depression
2. Personality disorders
3. Substance-related disorder

Other risk factors are;

  • Mental disorder associated with suicidal behavior (depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, or personality disorder)
  • Feeling hopeless
  • Prior suicidal behavior (suicide threats, suicide attempts)
  • Specific behaviors that suggest suicide planning (giving away possessions, saying goodbye to friends, talking about death or suicide, talking about specifi c plans to commit suicide, rehearsing a suicidal act, and/or accumulating medications)
  • Family history of suicidal behavior
  • Chronic impulsivity or aggression and low stress tolerance
  • Poor coping and problem-solving skills
  • Poor judgment and rigid, distorted thinking
  • Major life stressors (physical or sexual assault, threats against life, diagnosis of serious medical problem, dissolution of a signifi cant relationship, or sexual identity issues)
  • Breakdown of support systems or social isolation
  • Changes in mental status (acute deterioration in mental functioning, onset of major mental illness, extreme anxiety, paranoia, or severe depression)
  • Unsatisfying relationship history (never married, separated, divorced, or lack of signifi cant relationships)
  • Poor work history (spotty work history or chronic unemployment)
  • Childhood abuse
  • History of violent behavior

√ Being married (or having a significant relationship)

√ Employed or involved in a structured program (educational or vocational training program)

√ Presence of a support system (family, friends, church, and/or social clubs)

√ Having children who are under 18 years of age

√ Constructive use of leisure time (enjoyable activities)

√ General purpose for living

√ Involved in mental health treatment

√ Effective problem-solving skills

How can you help?
There are some ways you can help someone with suicidal thought.
1. Never leave them isolated
2. Make sure the environment of such person is free of lethal materials
3. Be encouraging and supportive
4. Encourage a depressed individual to visit a psychiatrist/psychologist
5. Treat/make sure psychological conditons are attended to by specialist.

I hope this article is helpful. Feel free to share to share thought with me in the comment below. If you will like to receive articles like this to your mailbox, kindly subscribe to my newsletter.



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Hi, I am Obembe, Sunday Dapo (SirPhren). I am the founder of this EMPIRE. I am a Registered Nurse, a Blogger and a Motivational Writer. I love sharing my knowledge with others. Am also an author on General Health Info and Health Info Corner. "Look within, the secret is inside you." To get through to me or HIRE me, am an email/ WhatsApp away. Am happy to have you around! Let's rock it together!

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JUNE URGES: Revisit Your Resolution (2)



Continuation of Revisit your resolution, part one.

The S.E.L.F reasons that infringes our resolutions.

S= Self-doubt
E= Enormosity (big)
L= Little/no drive
F= Fault finders.

Many a person gets hooked by one or many of these factors above, on the pursuit of their vision. This could keep such an individual spinning the wheels of opportunities repeatedly, but without tangible results.

Self doubt as learnt from Karyl MC Bride , a seasoned psychologist, is different from an “impostor syndrome” or ” low self esteem”

SELF DOUBT IS lack of confidence in oneself and one’s abilities.

Believers (Followers of Christ) have an edge at this juncture, and you may want to ask why,

Well, Check this out please:

1 COR 2:16 says:
…Who has known the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ

But we HAVE the MIND of CHRIST

This type of mind is devoid of fear, curruption of the world, pride, e.t.c.

It doesn’t come naturally by birth: but supernaturally by a re-birth.

At every point when the Pharisees come testing JESUS to see whether he will fall by his words, they become disappointed, because he knew the intent of their hearts.

So, you want to enjoy this kind of creative mind? Then you need to be friends with that successful man of Gallilee, JESUS.

“A successful person is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks that others throw at him or her.”

Doubters operate in the realms of luck,
But divine ability (of the mind) operates in the realm of the spirit.

Consequently; Self-doubt breeds excuses.

Surprisingly, failures tend to come with more reasons than successes, these reasons are referred to as “Excuses”

You remember David in the Holy scriptures right? Did you know he could have attributed his failure in the battle against that huge man of Gath (Goliath) to many reasons? In fact, he could have said he was too small, or he was just a shepherd, or he only killed a bear, and not a man in the first place, but he didn’t.


Every great success focuses on an inner ability.

Little wonder, that Great Nurse and Philanthropist, Florence Nightingale said; “I never gave or took an excuse”

Sometime ago, a friend said, you want to be a high achiever? LIVE BEYOND EXCUSES. Its is an element of self doubt!

Self doubt is an anti-resolution spirit.

¤Next up is ENORMORSITY (big, huge, complex…)

While resolutions may be big,
Steps (goals) toward achieving those resolutions should be simple,realistic and uncomplicated.

In fact, When you set a goal, you are working towards something. You can work backwards from where you want to get to and create an action plan of little steps you need to take to get there. This is a much more realistic way of creating the change you want because you’re slowly building yourself up to reach it, SAYS Susanna Halonen.

Its almost getting too bulky,
you dont like that right?, I don’t either, (😁 lafs)

But, believing we are being challenged by some truths entailed herein,


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